South Bend is a city on the St. Joseph river and a twin city of Mishawaka, Indiana. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total of 107,789 residents; its Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 316,663. It is the fourth largest city in Indiana and county seat of St. Joseph County. It is the economic and cultural hub of the region commonly known as Michiana, and may be best known as the home of the University of Notre Dame.
South Bend lies along the Indiana Toll Road at the south most turn in the St. Joseph River, from which it derives its name. The area was originally settled in the early 19th century by fur traders, and established as a city in 1865. The St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access led to heavy industrial development that peaked with Studebaker being based in the city, along with Oliver Chilled Plow Company and several other industrial companies.The population of South Bend has declined since its peak of 132,445 in 1960. This is in large part due to the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry. The 2000 census saw South Bend's population increase 2.2% from 1990, the first gain since 1960. Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, education, and small business. A large tourism sector also exists, mainly supported by the University of Notre Dame. South Bend still remains the focal point for Michiana, with the second busiest airport in Indiana, interurban rail service to downtown Chicago, and several large businesses including Crowe Horwath, Bosch and AM General.